Safety In Pesticide Industry
Definition of Pesticide
- Use of Pesticide chemical to destroy an organism that are harmful to human beings.
- There are different types of pesticides like insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, bactericides etc.
- They are generally halogenated or Organo phosphorus type.
- They are classified as extremely hazardous, highly hazardous, moderately hazardous, slightly hazardous etc.
Organo Chlorine Pesticide (OCP):-
- Pesticide such as aldrin, endrin and de- Eldrin causes toxic effects on skin contact, ingestion or inhalation.
- The rate of absorption and toxicity depends on the chemical structure and formulation.
- OCP are highly toxic.
- They affect directly on nervous system, liver, kidney and enzyme production.
- On exposure to pesticides, it releases slowly in to the blood serums and pass through and causes serious side effects on liver and kidney.
- Chronic poisoning may occur when absorbtion of low concentrations over a long period.
Definition of LD 50 and LC 50
- LD 50 is lethal dose 50%. Dose that can kill 50% of a group of test animals such as rate, rabbit etc.
The dose is either orally or applied on the skin.
It is usually in milligram of material per kg of body weight of the test animal.
- LC 50 is a lethal concentration (in air or water) that can kill 50% of a group of test animals in specified time period (usually 1 to 4 hours).
It is in ppm of material inhaled per kilogram of body weight of the test animal.
Types and classification of pesticides
- There are different types of pesticides such as insecticide, herbicides, bactericide, fungicide, etc.
What precautions need to observe while mixing and application of pesticides?
Take following precautions while mixing or applying pesticides:
- Read the Label thoroughly.
- Be familiar with all precautions.
- Be familiar with First Aid information.
- Worn required PPE like mask, gloves, goggles etc.
- Never smoke or eat while mixing or applying pesticides.
- Follow the “Directions for Use” on the label carefully.
- Use only for the purpose listed.
- Use only the amount directed, at the time and under the conditions specified.
- Twice the amount will NOT do twice the job. You could harm yourself, others, or the plant/area/pet you are trying to protect.
- Always mix or dilute the pesticide outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.
- Mix only the amount that you need for each application. Do not prepare larger amounts to store for possible future use.
- Keep living entity away from areas where you mix and apply pesticides for at least the length of time required on the label. If no time is listed on the label, wait until the pesticide has dried before reentering the area.
- If clothing becomes saturated dispose of it immediately. Wash any parts of the body that may have been exposure to the pesticide, with soap and water, and finish the job in fresh, clean clothing.
- Use selective insecticides.
Medical treatment in case of exposure to pesticides and their antidotes
Specified medical treatment is as under:
- In case of skin contact of organo-phosphorous, Immediately treat it with solution of 5-10% ammonia or 2-5% chloramine.
- Give injection of Atropine sulphate according to age, 2 to 4 mg intravenous or intramuscular. Continue this injection every 5 to 10 minutes till pupil’s size and heart beats become normal.
- Give injection of PAM (2-Pyridine Aldoxime Methochloride) in glucose slowly.
- Maintain fluid and electrolyte balance.
- Give antibiotic medicine to prevent secondary infection.
- Give Furosemide if lungs swallows or water fills with it.
- If breathing stops, must try artificial respiration till doctor comes.
- Keep patient in a cool and quiet place. Give oxygen if difficulty is in breathing.
- If breathing trouble is more, Shift the victim to hospital and put on ventilator.
Personal hygiene – to wash hands and mouth before and after lunch and bathing and changing clothes at the end of the work is highly essential.
Hazards involve in pesticides industry and its control measures for safety.
- Pesticides and agrochemicals can enter into the body through inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption.
- They are toxic, harmful, corrosive, irritant and sometimes flammable, explosive or oxidizing in nature.
- Types of effects may be immediate or chronic.
Some common symptoms are –
- Shaking and weakness.
- More toxic effects may cause convulsions, irrational behavior or unconsciousness.
To control adverse effects of pesticides,
- Label all agrochemicals, transport it safely and store correctly in a room (locked and cool).
- Open containers after wearing correct respirator (positive air pressure), neoprene or plastic hand gloves, aprons, boots etc.
- Protective clothing are always essential while handling pesticides.
- Avoid inhalation of vapor.
- Avoid contact with skin, eyes and clothing.
- Immediately change contaminated clothing, wash the entire body with soap and water.
- After working with pesticides, take shower bath and change clothing.
- Clean contaminated equipment with soap or soda ash.
Following points must be taken account when the pesticides are used.
- Toxicity of the chemicals: Immediate toxicity measured by the LD-50 value. Use of Oral and dermal LD-50 according to which has lower value for the specific chemical.
- Method of use/application: Poison enters the body from mouth to the lungs, the intact skin or wounds in the skin. Determination of the inhalation hazard by the physical form and solubility of the chemical, but some chemicals also exert a direct action on the skin causing dermatitis. Application of pesticides in different forms as solids, by spray, dilute or concentrated based on method of usage and degree of absorption.
- Route of absorption: Obtain the dermal LD-50 value when the animal is poisoned by application of chemical on the skin. This is more important than oral absorption in the occupational situation.
What points are to be observed while disposal of pesticides container with safety in pesticide industry?
- Pesticides are highly toxic and have adverse biological effects on human beings.
- Treat Spillage of pesticides during storage and handling with great care.
- Only allow Spilled liquid formation to dry and cleaned by vacuum cleaner.
- Sweep Spillage.
- Wash it with water and drain into a sewage pit.
- Remove contaminated top soil and burn it.
- Soak holes must used to disposed of all contaminated water.
- Crush plastic liners, paper or card container and buried well below top soil or burn it in preferably in chimney.
- Decontaminate metal container as per the manufactures instructions.
- Crush, Puncture and Bury Other metal containers.
- Clearly mark some containers “Not for use of food, water for drinking or domestic use”.
Marking, Labeling and disposal of containers with safety in pesticide industry
- Pack every container of pesticides air tight condition.
- Put a leaflet inside containing particulars,
- About application on which plant disease, insects, animals or weeds,
- Manner of application,
- Symptoms of poisoning,
- Safety measures and first aid treatment necessary,
- Decontamination or safe disposal procedure,
- Storage and handling precautions,
- Effects on skin, nose, eye throat etc.
- And common name of the pesticide.
- Do not allow their transfer with the food articles.
In labeling, warning and cautionary following health and safety statement should be included in Pesticide Industry.
For Category :
- I –
(Extremely toxic) insecticides, the symbol of a skull and cross-bones and word ”POISON” should be printed in red colour.
- II –
(Highly toxic) insecticides, the word “POISON” in red and statement “Keep out of the reach of children” should be printed.
- III –
(Moderately toxic) the word “DANGER” and statement “Keep out of the reach of children”.
- IV –
( Slightly toxic) the word “CAUTION” should be mentioned.